The Bonn Agreement Of 5 December 2001

  • 13. apríla 2021
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The agreement provides for the drafting of a new constitution, which will be ratified by another Loya jirga, as well as elections at the end of this two-year period. The agreement arrived .m at 6:45 a.m., after the convening of a final meeting at 5:30 a.m. between Lakhdar Brahimi, the UN special envoy for Afghanistan, and the heads of the four Afghan delegations and their accomplices. These provisions, diplomats and officials say, are being used in Kabul to create uncertainty about the new agreement. Rabbani and his allies proposed that the participants here allow the West and the United Nations to take control of Afghanistan, introduce foreign troops, disarm the mujahideen and hold war crimes trials. As part of the agreement, a special commission is created within one month to organize the appointment of an emergency Loya-Jirga or the traditional Constituent Assembly of provincial leaders and celebrities. „A year later, the Bonn agreement still represents Afghanistan`s best chance to end chronic instability, violence and a history of massive human rights violations,“ said Brad Adams, Asia executive director at Human Rights Watch. „However, many of the agreement`s promises were not kept last year. The international community has missed several opportunities to marginalize local military leaders and better promote security and the protection of human rights. The agreement also calls on the UN Security Council to authorize the rapid deployment of a multinational peacekeeping force to „help maintain security in Kabul and its surrounding areas.“ The force could be extended to other urban centres and other areas at a later date. The Bonn Agreement (officially the agreement on interim arrangements in Afghanistan until permanent government institutions were restored) was the first set of agreements adopted on 5 December 2001 to restore the State of Afghanistan after the US invasion of Afghanistan in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. In the absence of a national government since 1979 in Afghanistan, it was deemed necessary to have a transition period before a permanent government was established. A nationally agreed government would require the convening of at least one jirga de loya; However, in the absence of law and order following the rapid victory of the armed forces of the North American and Afghan alliance, immediate action was taken to prove necessary.

In December 2001, 25 prominent Afghans, under the aegis of the United Nations, met in Bonn to adopt a plan for the country`s leadership (see list of signatories to the International Conference on Afghanistan, Bonn (2001). The invitation of the warlords, capable of disrupting the process of state-building, introduced a „big tent“ strategy to involve these non-state actors in the centralization of the Afghan state instead of alienating them. [1] As a result, the 30-member Afghan Interim Authority (AIA), under the leadership of a President, was inaugurated on 22 December 2001 for a six-month term, followed by a two-year transitional authority (TA), after the elections. „Many of the difficulties encountered last year in implementing the Bonn agreement are the result of the disastrous state of Afghanistan`s civil and state institutions after two decades of war,“ Adams said.